Warm olive oil over medium heat in a large soup pot. Add onion, garlic, carrots, celery, and salt and cook until vegetables are soft, about 5–7 minutes.
Add tomato paste and cook until it becomes a rusty color, about 1–2 minutes. Add spices, crushing the fennel with your hands. Cook until fragrant, about 30 seconds.
Deglaze the pan with 1/2 cup of the chicken broth, scraping up any brown bits on the bottom of the soup pot that may have developed. Cook until broth has reduced by about half. Add the rest of the broth, beans, diced tomatoes with juices, and Parmesan rind.
Bring to a boil and reduce to a simmer. Cover with a tight-fitting lid and cook for at least 20 minutes. Add kale to simmering soup and cook for 3 minutes before serving.